This leads to a systematic behavior by all the people in the society. The country’s capital is Reykjavik. Religion leaves an imprint on landscape, through culture and lifestyle. Religion is also studied within cultural geography, which studies how cultural processes spread. Time and space are just two examples of cultural characteristics that you may take for granted but that are not universal. Religious traditions - Hindu ritual bathing in the Ganges, for example - leave their mark on the physical appearance of an area. Monasteries were set up throughout Europe as either destinations or as waystations for pilgrimages. For example, the Italian subito and the German sofort both refer to something happening “at once” or “straightaway,” but with different expectations about when the action, in fact, will take place. And, of course, miscommunications can occur not just across regional boundaries and business cultures but even within them. Cultural Geography, Chapter 6 (Religion) study guide by Kayla_Oden includes 36 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Generally, the farther east and south we travel from the United States, the more time becomes relational rather than chronological. Geography affects a business’s relationship with almost any type of stakeholder, from stockholders and employees to customers, the government, and the environment. How Geography Affects Religion? Religion is one which imparts culture to most of the societies. Motions of the Earth 2. (credit left: modification of “Taj Mahal” by Suraj rajiv/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 4.0; credit right: modification of “Cour de Marbre du Château de Versailles October 5, 2011” by Kimberly Vardeman/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0), Ricci’s approach and the relationship between Western and Ming Chinese views of ethics, episode of “American Experience” on John D. Rockefeller, Sr. from the Public Broadcasting System. Two common models are used for understanding cultural spread, which include cultural diffusion and cultural region models where concepts of core and periphery of cultural ideas reflects areas where less or more presence of a given culture is present. In the premodern era, very few people moved far from where they grew up, which meant that they were not exposed to cultures (including religions) that were very different from their own. In some cultures, touch is important in establishing connection, whereas in others it may be frowned upon. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1948, contains a list of basic human rights such as the right to life, liberty, due process, religion, education, marriage, and property. What is your opinion about workplace dress codes, and how far should employers go in setting dress and other behavior standards? In the movie The Intern, Robert De Niro’s senior character wears conservative blue and gray suits to his job at an e-commerce fashion startup, whereas the younger men dress very casually. Geography is very important to understanding culture. Values of Protestant Christianity were often used to justify ________. These factors are closely linked with our culture. Many ethnic Portuguese dishes use fish. Learn more about Ricci’s approach and the relationship between Western and Ming Chinese views of ethics on this webpage. It is Ramadan, and the employees on her team are Muslims who fast each day for a month. In order for a new faith, or any system of belief, to spread it would need to be carried by people who were on the move for that purpose or some other. Monasteries became the repositories of civilization, learning, and often wealth. Osiris presided over the afterlife and in death, all righteous Egyptians became Osiris. All three of these religions teach that no harm should be done to others, nor should people be treated as means toward a material end like wealth. The Taj Mahal is not the Palace of Versailles. Cambodia - Cambodia - Religion: Most ethnic Khmer are Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhists (i.e., belonging to the older and more traditional of the two great schools of Buddhism, the other school being Mahayana). Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. All rights reserved. Learn more about Iceland, including its history. Another aspect of international business relationships is the question of personal space. How does culture affect food in France ? The age of uncomfortable dresses and starched white shirts may be over, but cultural standards, along with underlying values that prioritize, say, innovation over uniformity, change over time and even within the same company. . True or false? By the time of the Industrial Revolution and postindustrial eras, Protestantism and its values of frugality, hard work, and simplicity (the “Protestant ethic”) had helped create a culture of individualism and entrepreneurship in the West, particularly in Great Britain and the United States. Lying on the constantly active geologic border between North America and Europe, Iceland is a land of vivid contrasts of climate, geography, and culture. Geography is one of the factors widely associated by historians with the social, political, and cultural development of a particular region. Christianity was thought to save them from their pagan ways just as Islam and the message of the prophet saved unbelievers in the East. In particular, research has explored how an individual’s religion (religious beliefs, religious denomination, strength of religious devotion, etc.) How do you think clothing might affect an international company’s approach to business ethics? The most prominent religious landscape feature is th… the blending together of two different faiths as in the case of the Pai Marire movement in 19th century New Zealand, which had only recently been colonized by Great Britain; this combined traditional Maori beliefs with Old Testament and Christian ideas, as well as a belief that the Maori would be liberated from their new rulers. What do you think would be the effect of Jillian’s accepting the local custom but continuing her own personal preference at mealtimes? The Relationship Between Geography and Religion It can be clearly sensed by the influence of religion shaping our world, being understood by what inhabits it. Business attire is another, as is humor, which is notoriously hard to translate across languages and cultures. A Tuareg proverb has it that the first cup of tea is bitter like life, the second sweet like love, and the third gentle like death. 1. His message was religious, not commercial, but his respectful attitude allowed him to be accepted and trusted by the emperor and administrators. Localization is the process of adapting a product for use or sale in other nations and cultures. Geography and culture affects religion because - 5365374 1. Are the Values Central to Business Ethics Universal? Religion and Beliefs . People tend to follow rules for marriage, work, business, death and other aspects of life. The Effect of Geography and Culture on Religion: Geography is one of the factors widely associated by historians with the social, political, and cultural development of a particular region. Or perhaps fast with her team and eat at sundown? Do both and you will be happy in both the worlds, and these are disconnected. Of course, Rockefeller’s concept of stewardship—an attitude toward money and capital that stresses care and responsibility rather than pure utility—can be found across cultures and religions in various forms, and there are many similarities among the Judaic, Islamic, and Christian views of money and its use toward a greater end. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Business ethics guides people to practice commerce professionally and honestly and in a way that permits as many as possible to flourish. A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. People may speak the same language but have quite different beliefs either as members of different major religions … Another aspect of the relationship between religion and geography is religious geography, in which geographical ideas are influenced by religion, such as early map-making, and the biblical geography that developed in the 16th century to identify places from the Bible. Although the church officially opposed slavery, the conquest of new lands was justified theologically as bringing salvation and civilization to populations considered savage and unsophisticated. For this and many other reasons, basic cultural literacy must be at the forefront of any ethical system that governs business behavior. by L. Ron Hubbard. Iceland, island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean. Variations in religious landscapes also give particular regions a unique character and can be seen in the form, orientation, density, and architecture of structures. Define localization and name at least three items that might be included as part of a localization effort. How would you reconcile cultural differences between so-called contact and noncontact cultures in the context of business negotiations? This might include language translation, adapting content to the tastes and consumption habits of the local market, and converting measurements. Human geographers and sociologists use different terms, like ecclesia, denomination, and sect, to define these types of organizations. Despite criticism, even from family members, Rockefeller donated enormous sums to many causes, especially medical research (in the form of Rockefeller University) and higher education. Just as concepts of time and space vary from culture to culture, so do the influence of religious tradition and authority on ethics and what is considered appropriate behavior, whether individual or corporate. business success during the Industrial Revolution. This helps them live within a set of rules unlike the animals. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. How could language or religion influence the diffusion of the other? Does this development affect the way you approach business relationships and conduct negotiations? Geography and regional cultural practices also play a significant role. Why or why not? In most cases, the religious beliefs are inherited, either directly from the people that raised you or from the society that already has, and let us use this word bravely now, an established dominant religion. A huge factor in different cultures is different religions. Ethical standards and practices governing these relationships depend on the environment they exist in, an environment that, in turn, depends on additional factors such as geography and religion. Dialogue and openness are crucial to this process, just as they are in every other kind of relationship. Also important in th… The Enlightenment’s attempt to peel religion away from ethics was short-lived, with even Kant acknowledging the need to base morality on something beyond the rationalism of his time. How can one cultural trait influence the spread of another cultural trait? Yet what role does a religious concept of stewardship play in the ethics of the twenty-first century? Why are these standards important (or not) from an ethical perspective? “As his fortune grew big enough to beggar the imagination, [Rockefeller] retained his mystic faith that God had given him money for mankind’s benefit . Places along the coast may have an oceangoing culture. How do geography and culture affect the formation of religion? This can be a matter of managing expectations. Religion and Ethics A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. Hundreds of studies have examined how religious beliefs mold an individual’s sociology and psychology. Might we see a universal, secular code of ethics developing in place of religion? However, as we have seen, the ethical standards by which business is conducted can vary depending on culture and time. Many today would disagree with the old adage that “clothes make the man,” yet studies show that well-dressed employees are held in higher esteem and may earn more, on average, than those who dress down. The Enlightenment attempted to separate religion and ethics but could not. Business Ethics by Rice University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Most religions transition thr… Climate 4. - Definition & Role in Society, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. In Nigeria, for example, standing either too close or too far from someone to whom you are speaking might be seen as impolite. As global markets become increasingly connected and interdependent, we navigate more of our valued relationships across international boundaries. The Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) learned Mandarin, adopted Chinese dress, translated Confucian texts into Latin, and was welcomed into the Chinese emperor’s court as a scholar. The Workplace Environment and Working Conditions, Contributing to a Positive Work Atmosphere, Criticism of the Company and Whistleblowing, Recognizing and Respecting the Rights of All, Accommodating Different Abilities and Faiths, Animal Rights and the Implications for Business, Ethical Issues in the Provision of Health Care, Changing Work Environments and Future Trends, Alternatives to Traditional Patterns of Work, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and the Workplace of the Future, Business Ethics in an Evolving Environment, Making a Difference in the Business World, Profiles in Business Ethics: Contemporary Thought Leaders. It can affect the same culture in different ways at different times. 3 Religion: Origins and Diffusion Cultural Geography A Geography of Religion For many people, religion, more than any other cultural trait, defines who they are and how they understand the world around them. At one point in the film, De Niro’s character asks, “Doesn’t anybody tuck in their shirt?” Leaving your shirt untucked has become more acceptable in recent years, and the black t-shirt and jeans favored in Silicon Valley are now quite fashionable in some business environments. Business is primarily about relationships—with employees, business partners, and customers and clients. Religious Influence in Society. An early 20th-century philosopher spoke of the impending decline of the West. If so, how would it accommodate the differences across time, regions, and cultures discussed in this chapter? Religion’s role in business is less certain today; we are perhaps more likely to see a universal, secular code of ethics develop than to see religion serve as common ground for different cultures to come together. In the modern era, the ease of travel and communication makes it possible for even religious traditions associated with specific regions to spread far beyond their borders, as has been the case with Tibetan Buddhism (which is now under threat in Tibet itself). Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Did you know that every region of France has its own kind of wine and bread .There are like 400 different types of cheeses all classified by the type of milk they are made with (cow, goat, or ewe)they are all made in France How does The Concept of Ethical Business in Ancient Athens, Ethical Advice for Nobles and Civil Servants in Ancient China, Comparing the Virtue Ethics of East and West, Utilitarianism: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number, Ethical Decision-Making and Prioritizing Stakeholders, Three Special Stakeholders: Society, the Environment, and Government, Corporate Law and Corporate Responsibility, Sustainability: Business and the Environment, The Impact of Culture and Time on Business Ethics, The Relationship between Business Ethics and Culture. In Kenya, tutaonana baadaye means “see you later,” although “later” could be any time, open to context and interpretation. The factors are: 1. . Behavioral norms for the clergy were founded and supported by the divine right of kings and the authority of religious tradition ((Figure)). Mithraism, for example, was spread throughout the Roman world by soldiers who often had to serve in areas far from their places of birth; while Islam spread through military conquest (as in Spain and the Balkans), or through trade (as in Indonesia). Until the seventeenth century, religion and ethics were nearly inseparable. Unlike the notion of historical time discussed in the previous module, the concept of time in business—people’s approach to punctuality, for example—varies widely in different cultures. Are the two concepts inextricably linked? Of the forces shaping the geography of culture, language and religion are two of the most powerful, but as a divisive force religion plays a more prominent role. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Describe the impact of geography on global relationships and business ethics, Explain how religion informs ethical business practice around the world. Ancient Greece, for example, was not a nation but a collection of independent city-states which were naturally isolated from one another by the mountainous area in which they were found; while ancient Egypt was, for most of its history, a single unified kingdom whose entire welfare depended upon the Nile River that ran through it from north to south. In July 2018 Mothercare PLC announced to the... What pyramid did Imhotep build in ancient... How did transcendentalism unite American... What is the difference between dark romanticism... What is the significance of transcendentalism in... What were the common themes associated with... Why did transcendentalism develop after... How did transcendentalism affect American... How did transcendentalism start in literature? Such expressions make sense in a culture where the enculturation process emphasizes competition and speed. He financed the founding of the University of Chicago as an institution that would train students to pursue their professional and business interests under the guidance of Christian faith. Some ways that religion affects culture are that it inspires great works of art and architecture and that it often defines socially acceptable behavior in countries strongly influenced by it. Business ethics will have to balance all these factors when adopting standards of conduct and local practices. Motions of the Earth: Our behaviour-patterns, daily work-schedules as well as festivals and […] Religious structures - such as places of worship, and other sacred sites - dominate many landscapes. As a general rule, “contact” cultures—where people stand closer together when interacting, touch more often, and have more frequent direct eye contact—are found in South America, the Middle East, and southern Europe, while “noncontact” cultures—where eye contact and touching are less frequent, and there is less physical proximity during interactions—are in northern Europe, the Far East, and the United States. Log in. But even among Western business cultures, conceptions of time can differ. Compare this with the Western attitude that “time flies” and “time is money.” Finally, Westerners doing business in some English-speaking African countries have learned that if they want something immediately, they have to say “now now” as “now” by itself does not convey the desired sense of immediacy. All of this speaks to the awareness and cultural sensitivity that must be exhibited by an ethical manager doing business in a region different from his or her own. Join now. Until the Reformation, the Church was a power to be reckoned with in both religious and secular matters. Join now. Later in life, and as his philanthropic motivation increased, his endowment of several charitable causes more fully reflected his belief as to how God wished him to dispose of a sizable portion of his wealth. Ask your question. In other words, business has a role beyond merely reflecting the culture in which it operates. These differences might significantly affect the foundation of any business relationships you may want to establish around the world. Moreover, the state or crown often worked side by side with the church in the past, choosing certain teachings over others to promote its own interests. Climate and geography play major roles in … Geography of Religion Geographers don't look at religion with the goal of altering, judging, or influencing the beliefs of others. hamzaabubacar25 hamzaabubacar25 22.10.2020 Religion Senior High School Geography and culture affects religion because 1 On the other hand, geographical boundaries meant that some religious groups were limited to a particular region; the Karaite sect in medieval Judaism, for example, was centered in the Jewish community of Babylonia, and from there established branches in Egypt and Russia which for centuries remained the centers of that culture. What should she do for lunch? Such adaption often starts with language translation but may include customizing content or products to the tastes and consumption habits of the local market; converting currencies, dates, and other measurements to regional standards; and addressing community regulations and legal requirements. How we perceive things is largely affected by our judgment skills, preconceived notions, attitude, and emotions. Jillian Armstrong leads an external audit team reviewing the financial statements of Islamabad Investment Bank in Islamabad, Pakistan. ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the four main factors of geography that have influence on society and culture. One example of this singular association is John D. Rockefeller, who, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, commanded the attention given today to Bill Gates and Warren Buffet as emblems of free enterprise. Until 1975 Buddhism was officially recognized as the state religion of Cambodia. Ancient Egyptian Religion and the Nile River. A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal For example, just as the current debate over the redistribution of goods and services has Christian roots, so the Industrial Revolution in England and northern Europe looked to Protestant Christianity in particular for the values of frugality, hard work, industriousness, and simplicity. Certain mistakes, particularly accidental ones and those not motivated by malicious design, will likely be forgiven. The study also concluded that, although leaders learn to adapt to cultural expectations, they often have to exceed those expectations to be truly successful. The richest person of his age, Rockefeller earned his fortune as the founder and major shareholder of Standard Oil but always regarded his billions as a public trust rather than his personal prize. The place of our birth and our cultural environment heavily influence our behavior. There are different religions today because there are different value systems around the world—the ways in which people think they are going to become happy. How do you think clothing choices affect the relationships we form at work or in other business situations? The acceptance of a new religion, or of any new practice or idea, is also affected by the cultural values of the people exposed to it. In its study of leadership effectiveness and organizational behavior across cultures, the GLOBE leadership project of the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, found leader effectiveness is contextual and strongly connected to cultural and organizational values. Our culture determines the structure of our thinking, which influences our perceptio… Because there are differences in the characteristics, history, and interaction with the environment and society, religions also have distinctive landscapes. Although religious practices and cultural assumptions remain strongly in place, fewer people in the West today profess a religion than in the past. ? How does religion help and/or hurt society? Many believed that people could not be persuaded to do the right thing without the threat of eternal damnation. These differences might significantly affect the foundation of any business relationships is the imprint! Leaves an imprint on landscape, through culture and time be the effect of jillian s!, learning, and emotions Ramadan, and cultures these definitions are not.. Something as easy or difficult, our biases play a key role ’... Just across regional boundaries and business cultures, touch is important in th… geography is one the. Do n't look at religion with the social, political, and that is the influence of religious practice not! And society, religions also have distinctive landscapes major part of any culture group be harmful prolonged... 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